Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your eye's optic nerve and gets worse over time. It due to increase pressure inside the eye. Glaucoma tends to be inherited and may not show up until later in life.
The increased pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve, which transmits images to the brain. If damage to the optic nerve from high eye pressure continues, glaucoma will cause permanent loss of vision. Without treatment, glaucoma can cause total permanent blindness within a few years.
Because most people with glaucoma have no early symptoms or pain from this increased pressure, it is important to see your eye doctor regularly so that glaucoma can be diagnosed and treated before long-term visual loss occurs.
If you are over age 40 and have a family history of glaucoma, you should have a complete eye exam with an eye doctor every one to two years. If you have health problems such as diabetes or a family history of glaucoma or are at risk for other eye diseases, you may need to visit your eye doctor more frequently.
There are two types of glaucoma
1. open angle
2. closed angle
oral and topical drops which lowers the intraocular pressue are used in early case of open angle glaucoma but in late stages surgery like trabeculectomy has to be done where as for closed angle glaucoma yag laser iridotomy ie making a small hole or aperture in the peripheral part of iris( brown part of eye) should be done.